Natural Phenomenon

What are Volcanoes?
Volcanoes look a lot like mountains but they are quite different.
A volcano is a mountain that opens downwards to storage of molten rock deep underneath the Earth’s surface. The top of a volcano opens up like a hole (or vent) where the molten lava rises through and reaches the earth’s surface. This is what we term as a Volcanic Eruption. (source: qknowbooks)
A volcanic eruption is the escaping of molten rock through a rupture in a mountain on to the Earth’s surface. Clouds of ash and lava are seen coming out of a Volcanic eruption.
Volcanic eruptions can completely clear out its surroundings.

There are 3 stages of volcano:
a.     Active Volcano; recently erupted volcano which can erupt again.

b.     Dormant Volcano; a volcano that has not been erupted in a long time but can erupt again

c.      Extinct Volcano: one that erupted 100 or 1000 years ago and can never erupt again.

Why do volcano erupt?
Earth is made up of 3 different layers; the outer crust, mantle and core.
The mantle which is the origin of volcanic activity is made up of gases and molten rock (also known as magma). 

Constant build of heat and pressure in the mantle due to the movement and friction of plate tectonics cause by the volcanic eruption

Different Types of Volcano

a.     Lava Volcanoes

b.     Shield Volcanoes

c.      Cinder Cones

d.     Composite Volcano

Types of Volcanic Eruptions
a.     Hawaiin Eruption

b.     Vulcanian Eruption

c.      Plinian Eruption

Effects of Volcanic Eruption

Some negative effects are;

Volcanic Eruptions may have lava sliding down on either side of the volcanoes, this lava can wipe out any surrounding property, vegetation or people nearby. Volcanic eruption can sometimes shoot out ash forming clouds of ash in the atmosphere, this is dangerous for people in surrounding areas as it pollutes the air they breathe.  The ozone layer can also be destroyed in the long term.

Some Positive effects are;

Lava can dry up and form rocks or soil which are rich in nutrients. This is good for growing and its land. 

Volcanic eruptions serve as tourist attraction, the way in which they erupt brings excitement. People travel from different countries just to witness them. Like, volcanoes in Gunung Merapi bring a lot of tourist attraction



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